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Music, an abstract stimulus, can arouse feelings of euphoria and craving, similar to tangible rewards that involve the striatal dopaminergic system. Using the neurochemical specificity of [11C]raclopride positron emission tomography scanning, combined with psychophysiological measures of autonomic nervous system activity, we found endogenous dopamine release in the striatum at peak emotional arousal during music listening. To examine the time course of dopamine release, we harga kacamata oakley inmate original used functional magnetic resonance imaging with the same stimuli and listeners, and found a functional dissociation: the caudate was more involved during the anticipation and the nucleus accumbens was more involved during the experience of peak emotional responses to music. These results indicate that intense pleasure in response to music can lead to dopamine release in the striatal system. Notably, the anticipation of an abstract reward can result in dopamine release in an anatomical pathway distinct from that associated with the peak pleasure itself. Our results help to explain why music is of such high value across all human societies. (a) Statistical parametric maps (t statistic on sagittal, coronal and axial slices) reveal significant (P 0.001) [11C]raclopride binding potential (BP) decreases bilaterally in the caudate, putamen and NAcc (white arrows) during pleasurable compared with neutral music listening (Supplementary Table 2), indicating increased dopamine release during pleasurable music. (b) Changes in binding potential (BP) values plotted separately for each individual; note that the change was consistent for the majority of people at each site. (a) [11C]raclopride PET scan results were spatially conjoined with the fMRI results by creating a mask of significant dopamine release overlayed on BOLD response t maps during each condition. (b) Hemodynamic responses and dopamine activity were maximal in the caudate during anticipatory phases, but shifted more ventrally to NAcc during peak emotional responses. (c) Percent signal change in BOLD response relative to the mean was calculated from the peak voxel of the caudate and NAcc clusters based on the [11C]raclopride PET data. Voxels showing maximum dopamine release in the caudate and NAcc (Supplementary Table 2) were identified and percent BOLD signal change was calculated during the fMRI epochs associated with peak emotional responses; values were interpolated for each second preceding this response for each individual, up to 15 s, which was defined as the anticipatory period based on previous findings15 (see Online Methods for additional details). We found increased activity during anticipation (A1 A15) and decreased activity during peak emotional response (C1 C4) for the caudate, but a continuous increase in activity in NAcc with a maximum during peak emotional responses. The mean signal for neutral epochs for the NAcc and caudate clusters are also plotted for reference, as are the 5 s preceding the anticipation epochs. Left, coronal slices showing binding potential differences in dorsal (top) and ventral (bottom) striatum that also show hemodynamic activity during anticipation versus experience of chills, respectively. Right, behavioral ratings of the number and intensity harga kacamata oakley inmate of chills and pleasure reported during the PET scans plotted against [11C]raclopride binding potential changes in the two clusters. The number of chills reported was positively correlated with percent binding potential change in the caudate ( 0.05), which was linked to BOLD response immediately preceding chills (that is, anticipatory periods), consistent with the idea that a greater number of chills would result in greater anticipation and result in more activity in the areas associated with anticipation. Relationship between real time ratings of pleasure during music listening and percent BOLD signal change relative to the mean in regions showing dopamine release as identified via PET. The chills epochs (shaded) were excluded from the analysis (values shown here only for reference) to examine activity related to increases in pleasure irrespective of chills. A regression analysis revealed that the NAcc, and to a lesser extent the left and right caudate, significantly predicted increases in pleasure ratings during each of the conditions (P 0.05 and P 0.001, respectively; Supplementary Table 4).

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