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The effects of the Krakatoa eruption that led to the red, vivid sunsets is believed to be the inspiration for Edvard Munch's famous painting 'The Scream'. The Krakatoa (kra kuh tow uh) island is situated in the Sunda Strait, between Java and Sumatra, and forms a part of the Indonesian Island Arc. The Krakatoa volcano on the island that oakley replacement lenses hijinx polarized had been dormant for 200 years exploded on the 26th of August, 1883, destroying not only the island, but claiming the lives of more than 36,000 people, and causing damage to the surrounding property, and negative changes in the environment. The aftermath of the eruption was felt for several months after the incident and the disaster has been recorded as one of the worst in the history of the world. In this following Buzzle article, we will provide you with the history, information, and other facts about the Krakatoa volcano. The Island of Krakatoa as it Was The Krakatoa island (also known as 'Krakatau') is situated near the Indonesian island of Rakata in western Indonesia, in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. The island was about 5.5 miles long and 3 miles wide. The Krakatoa Islands before the eruption Before the explosion, the island had 3 linked volcanic peaks (composite volcano), these being which was the northernmost peak and also the most active; the Danan peak, which was situated in the middle; and the Rakata, which was the largest and formed the southernmost end of the island. The Krakatoa Islands after the eruption The Krakatoa, along with two nearby islands, Verlatan and Lang are remnants of a large eruption that had taken place previously and left an undersea caldera (crater) between them. The Warning Signs Before the Eruption 2 3 months prior to the incident, many passing ships, commercial vessels, and chartered sightseeing boats in the Indian ocean would witness and report of several abnormal happenings around the volcano. They reported of black clouds hovering above the volcano and thundering noises. By August 1, three vents were seen to be regularly erupting on the volcano. During this time, the tides were also reported as being unusually high, and the water was so unsteady that the ships at anchor were required to be tied down with chains. Reports of windows shattering without any apparent reason were also quite common. Why the Eruption Occurred The Krakatoa eruptions were caused by the subduction of the Indo Australian tectonic plate as it moved northward towards mainland Asia. Subduction is a geological process by which one edge of a crustal plate is forced sideways and downward into the mantle below another plate. It is said that the earlier eruptive activity must have plugged the neck of the cone of the volcano, thus allowing pressure to build in the magma chamber. This caused black soot and ashes to circulate the islands around Krakatoa. The black soot and hot ashes rained down on the people, causing panic and fear among them. From time to time, a red, fiery glare was spotted over the volcano as well. The sea turned more violent, and waves crashed against the shore, shattering boats at the harbor to smithereens. Shortly after, the telegraph lines went dead. All night through, the eruptions continued, sending flying cinders and ash into the air. On the dawn of the 27th, the first explosion began at 5.30 am. and was followed by 3 more explosions at 6:42 am., 8:20 am., and 10:02 am. Pyroclastic Flows Caused This The last of the eruptions that took place at 10:02 am. opened fissures in the walls of the volcano, thus allowing sea water to pour into the magma chamber and come in contact with the hot lava event is known as a phreatomagmatic event. As a result oakley replacement lenses half jacket xlj of this, the water flash boiled and created a cushion of superheated steam that carried the pyroclastic flows up to 25 miles, recording speeds in excess of 62mph. Destruction of the Island With the last explosion, both, the Danan and Perboewatan were plunged into the crater below the sea and only a 3rd of the Krakatoa island remained above sea level. The rest of the island that the volcano had stood on, exploded into nothingness. New islands made of steaming pumice and ash were formed, these lay to the north where the sea had been 36 m deep. The Sound and Rating on the VEI It has been recorded that the sound that these eruptions caused was so deafening and loud that it could be heard about 2,800 miles away in Perth, Australia. Buildings that were 500 miles away shook with the impact. The Volcanic Explosion Index has assigned a rating of 6 to the eruptions and it is estimated to have had an explosive force of 200 megatons of TNT. To put things into perspective, the bomb that was used against Hiroshima had a force of 20 kilotons and the Mount St. Helens explosion that took place in 1980, had a VEI of 5. Tsunamis and Volcanic Ashes Followed The deadliest effect of the eruptions was the subsequent tsunamis that took place, which were responsible for the maximum number of deaths. When the volcano collapsed into the sea, it created a wall of water, nearly 120 feet tall, that moved out from Krakatoa at 60 miles per hour.

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